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Survey, evaluation and control of underground space
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Monitoring Equipment. Monitoring (Case Studies)

Equipment for monitoring of

  • High structures, housing estates, subway tunnels and overpasses, bridges, dams of hydroelectric power stations and tidal power stations, other complex engineering structures

Output production (devices and equipment) for specialized geotechnical monitoring, depending on controlled parameters, can be conditionally divided into several groups:

Inclinometers and Tiltmeters - in-place, surface, with digital indication

  • inclinometers with servo probe (vertical and horizontal model);
  • tele-coordinometer (TEL-310);
  • multi-function datalogger (NADIR) for inclinometer measurements (with data processing software package);
  • portable tiltmeter (TILLI): measurements are conducted at the special tilt plate permanently installed on either horizontal or vertical surface;
  • pendulum systems for monitoring horizontal movements in concrete dams and dam foundation, determining the vertical deviation of high buildings and structures, elevator shafts.

High-precision digital inclinometer system NADIR
High-precision digital
inclinometer system Nadir

Surface tiltmeters, magneto-resistive inclinometers, force-balanced inclinometers
Surface tiltmeters, magneto-resistive
inclinometers, force-balanced
inclinometers

Portable removable tiltmeter TILLI
Portable removable tiltmeter Tilli


Extensometers (displacement gauges, dimensional change gauges, settlement transducers) - single and multipoint (with enlarged measuring rod).

Magnetic extensometer
Magnetic extensometer

  • embankment extensometers (monitoring of lateral strains) and fixed extensometers (monitoring of embankment settlement or heave);
  • tape extensometers - for convergence monitoring of tunnel linings and for distance measurements in excavation and mining openings;
  • borehole, magnetic, three-component extensometers - a basis for monitoring of the mining area surrounding the engineering structure;
  • settlement gauges, DSM-system (differential settlement monitoring system) for long-term tracking of behavior of structures.

     

  • Borehole extensometer
    Borehole extensometer

    Tape extensometer
    Tape extensometer

    DSM Differential Settlement Monitoring system
    DSM Differential Settlement
    Monitoring system

    Crackmeters and Jointmeters - uniaxial and 3-D (triaxial)

    Crackmeters (drain and joint transducers)
    Crackmeters
    (drain and joint transducers)

  • terminal displacement transducers (for remote readout);
  • integrated systems (GRID) - 4 miniature electrical fissure meters with a compact datalogger;
  • wire crackmeters - for detecting movements (expansion and contractions) in rock masses. Distance between the anchors can be up to 30 meters with an opening (convergence) range of 2 meters.

     

     

     

  • Deformeter in the body of motorway embankment
    Deformeter in the body
    of motorway embankment

    Electrical deformeter
    Electrical deformeter

    Wire crackmeter
    Wire crackmeter

    Load Cells

    Earth Pressure Cells - (have a stainless steel 230 mm diaphragm when used for measurements of soil pressure in earth fill embankments; a rectangular plate 100 x 200 mm is used for measurements in hard material.); a flat support allows to determine the elasticity coefficient and deformation capabilities of rock, concrete and brickwork.

    Concrete Stress Cells are used for tunnel monitoring within concrete linings. Suitable for radial measurements (up to 20 MPa). Measuring cells have a complementary repressurizing device (to ensure an intimate contact between the pad and the concrete after installation).

    Strain Gauges are used for measuring strains both in steel and concrete structures; available in different models suitable for various applications:

    a) with electrical strain-gauge with ceramic diaphragm,
    b) vibrating wire strain-gauge.

    Mostly these gauges are installed on the reinforcement before concrete grouting at production of complicated building units, load-bearing elements (piles, joistings, bridge trusses or spans), etc. Such approach allows to control behavior of structure's load-bearing elements under load.

    Hydraulic Anchor Load Cells - anchor load cells (electrical/hydraulic or strain-gauge load cells with capacity from 3,000 kN up to 10,000 kN) allow to monitor struts, concrete tiebacks, anchor supports and steel tiebacks, load on bridge pillars, overbridges and aqueducts. Can be used as an overload indicator in cathead pillars at production sites.

    Installation of vibrating deformation strain-gauge on the reinforcement
    Installation of vibrating deformation
    strain-gauge on the reinforcement

    Electrical anchor load cells
    Electrical anchor load cells

    Hydraulic anchor load cells
    Hydraulic anchor load cells
    (pressure cells)

    Concrete stress cells
    Concrete stress cells

    Electrical resistance load cell
    Electrical resistance load cell

    Earth pressure cells
    Earth pressure cells

    Hydrological (Engineering-geological) Monitoring

    Electrical pore pressure cells
    Electrical pore pressure cells

    • Water level meters, piezometers, transducers (pore pressure cells);
    • Flow meters, micro-current meters, water samplers, level meters;
    • Water level monitoring (LeLog) - an integrated measuring system for monitoring of water levels (temperature) with a miniature datalogger (70 mm diameter); internal memory can store up to 21,000 readings for each channel.

    Micro-current meter
    Micro-current meter

    Vibrating piezometers
    Vibrating piezometers

    Pneumatic water sampler
    Pneumatic water sampler

    Mode of mounting at the well head
    Mode of mounting at the well head

    Complex datalogger - an integrated measuring system
    Complex datalogger  -
    an integrated measuring system

    Water level meters (dipmeters)
    Water level meters (dipmeters)

    Readout Units, Data Recorders and Data Loggers - from elementary digital readout devices and handy indicators with LCD to multi-function portable data loggers.

    • Minilogger - a remote stand-alone data logger; total memory capacity of 64,000 data, RS 485 communication port.
    • Datalogger (ADK-10) - a powerful and versatile multi-function data logger built around the CR10X module. It is a microcomputer, clock (timer), multimeter, calibrator, scanner, frequency counter and controller. A multitasking operating system allows simultaneous communication and measurements functions. The basic module allows to scan up to 6 multiplexers. Multiplexers provide additional inputs up to 192 analog or differential (digital) channels.
    • Software program (Multilogger) - is designed for real-time monitoring (on the basis of ADK-10 datalogger). Option selection includes multiplexer scan, channel configuration, scan interval, alarm limit entry with warning signal out, graphs representation, local and remote communication by RS232 COM port, MD-9 direct connection, phone modem or GSM.

    Portable dataloggers
    Portable dataloggers

    Multi-function readout units
    Multi-function readout units

    ADK-10 and Multilogger accessories
    ADK-10 and Multilogger accessories

    Field datalogger (Minilogger)
    Field datalogger (Minilogger)

    Recording and processing system ADK-10
    Recording and processing
    system ADK-10

    Cables and auxiliary devices
    Cables and auxiliary devices

    Objects Monitoring (case studies)

    The most complex and multi-component control systems are designed to monitor high structures, subway tunnels that are driven in unstable rocks (floating earth, zones of fissuring, high probability of formation of subsidence craters, etc.), dams, landslides, complex engineering structures.

    Each of the listed objects is unique not only because of its constructive characteristics but in connection with uniqueness of mining and geological conditions in which it is constructed. It is necessary to point that the geological base of the object, engineering-geological conditions of its subsistence are not absolutely stable; they change over the time and sometimes very noticeably.

    Monitoring of most parameters characterizing stability of the structure allows to increase its serviceability, extend the term of its life and exclude almost completely an event of disaster (reduce to minimum a number of victims) in the case of its failure.

    Allocation of transducers in the body of the structure.
Arched dam (similarly a high structure)

    Allocation of transducers
    in the body of the structure.
    Arched dam (similarly a high structure)

    High Structure Monitoring

    The system of transducers allows to control strain increase and generation of deformation in the construction structure or in its basic elements, verticality deviation, horizontal displacements at a certain horizon, to evaluate the value of the structure's pressure on underlying rocks and soils, the value of wind pressure at the upper floors of the structure, to exercise control of engineering-geological and hydrogeological conditions in the structure foundation.

    Exceeding of allowable operational load or negative impacts causing loss of structure's strength form the alerting signal. At the monitoring scheme there can be marked out the problem zone, concretized the type of impact.







    Landslide monitoring system
    Landslide monitoring system

    System of Landslide Slope Monitoring

    The basis for development of the optimal monitoring scheme is engineering and geophysical survey (RFGI (radio-frequency geointroscopy), georadiolocation, etc.). Research and mapping of landslide structure data allow to concretize the parameters of the landslide slope, to mark the zones that need further reinforcement and to determine the places for maximally effective installation of transducers for control of stable state of the landslide or of activation and development of the process; for assessment of exterior actions impact on it. The attempts to use the mechanical approach to mounting of transducers around the area considerably reduce the efficiency of conducted works and the whole monitoring system.









    Tunnel monitoring (general scheme)
    Tunnel monitoring
    (general scheme)

    Tunnel Monitoring (general scheme)

    Borehole extensometers allow to control displacement of rock masses (soils) around the tunnel; vibrating transducers inform on increase of pressure in constructs of tunnel shield; pressure cells allow to receive information about the value of exterior pressure on concrete or steel tunnel lining.

    Monitoring of engineering shield of the trench
    Monitoring of engineering shield of the trench

    Monitoring of Trench Engineering Shield

    Application of a wide range of geotechnical monitoring instruments allows to control rock masses movements around the trench, to measure pressure in tunnel linings, pore-water pressure at different levels, pressure of engineering shield walls on spacer columns, to control horizontal level of the structure, behavior of the surrounding constructions, influence of the trench on their stability.




    Production stills of installation and application of technical monitoring equipment

     

    Vibration control of the building (moment of work)
    Vibration control of the building
    (moment of work)

    Hydraulic connector assembly for DSM - a soil settlement
control system (of the building)
    Hydraulic connector assembly for
    DSM - a soil settlement
    control system (of the building)

    Basic part of a vertical pendulum - a deviation transducer for high structures
    Basic part of a vertical pendulum - 
    a deviation transducer for
    high structures

    Crackmeter is mounted for control of joint stability
    Crackmeter is mounted
    for control of joint stability

    Strain gauges mounted on steel construction
    Strain gauges mounted
    on steel construction

    Concrete pressure cell before cement grouting of the mounting niche
    Concrete pressure cell before cement
    grouting of the mounting niche

    Displacement control in the open joint of the motorway trestle
    Displacement control in the open
    joint of the motorway trestle

    During the works on increasing of bearing capacity of rocks and soils under the building, on underpinning ("Geocomposit", "Soil Jet-Grounting" methods; see more information at the web-sites: www.geomassiv.ru or www.jet-grouting.ru) at the first stage it is effectual to carry out the comprehensive survey of the entire volume of rock masses under the building. This allows to select weakened areas and purposefully attend to their reanimation. For a problem object there can be created a local monitoring system which allows to control efficiency of the works being conducted, behavior of the object (stability) after its reinforcement or to adjust (if necessary) the places of reimpact.

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